Rare Animals

Photo © Sam Stukel

Rare Animals of South Dakota

Please cite this webpage as: South Dakota Natural Heritage Program. 2018. Rare Animals of South Dakota. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota. https://gfp.sd.gov/rare-animals/. Accessed (today's date).

Scientific Name

Common Name

Federal Status

State Status

Global Rank

Global Rank Last Reviewed

State Rank

State Rank Last Reviewed

AMPHIBIANS

Necturus maculosus Mudpuppy G5 06/05/2015 SH 05/12/2017
Acris blanchardi Blanchard's Cricket Frog G5 01/22/2016 S2 06/27/2017
Hyla chrysoscelis Cope's Gray Treefrog G5 06/05/2015 S2 06/27/2017
Hyla versicolor Gray Treefrog G5 02/02/2016 S2 06/27/2017
Rana blairi Plains Leopard Frog G5 12/31/2002 S3S4 06/27/2017
Rana sylvatica Wood Frog G5 05/10/2016 S1 06/27/2017

BIRDS

Gavia immer Common Loon G5 04/07/2016 S1B 08/21/2017
Podiceps auritus Horned Grebe G5 04/09/2016 S2B 08/21/2017
Podiceps grisegena Red-necked Grebe G5 04/09/2016 S3B 08/21/2017
Aechmophorus clarkii Clark's Grebe G5 04/06/2016 S2B 08/21/2017
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos American White Pelican G4 04/09/2016 S2B 08/21/2017
Ixobrychus exilis Least Bittern G4,G5 12/29/2017 S1B 08/21/2017
Ardea herodias Great Blue Heron G5 04/06/2016 S4B 02/01/2018
Ardea alba Great Egret G5 04/06/2016 S3B 02/01/2018
Egretta thula Snowy Egret G5 04/07/2016 S2B 02/01/2018
Egretta caerulea Little Blue Heron G5 04/07/2016 S1B 02/01/2018
Egretta tricolor Tricolored Heron G5 04/07/2016 SXB 02/01/2018
Butorides virescens Green Heron G5 04/06/2016 S2B 02/01/2018
Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night-Heron G5 04/09/2016 S3B 02/01/2018
Nyctanassa violacea Yellow-crowned Night-Heron G5 11/20/1996 SUB 04/22/1992
Plegadis chihi White-faced Ibis G5 04/09/2016 S2B 08/21/2018
Cygnus buccinator Trumpeter Swan G4 04/07/2016 S3B 08/22/2018
Bucephala albeola Bufflehead G5 04/06/2016 S1B 04/17/1996
Lophodytes cucullatus Hooded Merganser G5 04/09/2016 S2B 08/22/2018
Mergus merganser Common Merganser G5 04/09/2016 S2B 08/22/2018
Pandion haliaetus Osprey ST G5 04/09/2016 S3B 05/20/2020
Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald Eagle G5 04/08/2016 S4B 09/07/2018
Accipiter striatus Sharp-shinned Hawk G5 04/06/2016 S3B 04/18/2019
Accipiter cooperii Cooper's Hawk G5 04/06/2016 S3B 06/27/2017
Accipiter gentilis Northern Goshawk G5 04/06/2016 S3B 04/22/1992
Buteo platypterus Broad-winged Hawk G5 04/06/2016 S2B 06/27/2017
Buteo swainsoni Swainson's Hawk G5 04/06/2016 S4B 04/18/2019
Buteo regalis Ferruginous Hawk G4 04/06/2016 S3B 04/18/2019
Aquila chrysaetos Golden Eagle G5 04/06/2016 S3B 08/16/2019
Falco columbarius Merlin G5 04/07/2016 SUB 06/28/2017
Falco peregrinus Peregrine Falcon SE G4 04/07/2016 SXB 04/22/1992
Falco mexicanus Prairie Falcon G5 04/07/2016 S3S4B 04/22/1992
Coturnicops noveboracensis Yellow Rail G4 04/07/2016 SH 06/28/2017
Rallus elegans King Rail G4 04/08/2016 SHB 06/28/2017
Grus americana Whooping Crane LE SE G1 04/08/2016 SZN 04/22/1992
Charadrius melodus Piping Plover LT ST G3 04/07/2016 S3B 08/16/2019
Charadrius montanus Mountain Plover G3 04/07/2016 SXB 06/28/2017
Charadrius nivosus Snowy Plover G3 04/07/2016 S1B 04/18/2019
Himantopus mexicanus Black-necked Stilt G5 04/08/2016 S1B 06/27/2017
Numenius borealis Eskimo Curlew LE SE GH 04/09/2016 SXB 06/28/2017
Numenius americanus Long-billed Curlew G5 04/09/2016 S3B 06/27/2017
Scolopax minor American Woodcock G5 04/09/2016 S2B 04/18/2019
Larus californicus California Gull G5 04/09/2016 S2B 04/18/2019
Hydroprogne caspia Caspian Tern G5 04/08/2016 S1B 04/18/2019
Sterna hirundo Common Tern G5 04/10/2016 S2B 04/23/2019
Sternula antillarum Least Tern LE SE G4 04/10/2016 S3B 08/16/2019
Chlidonias niger Black Tern G4,G5 04/07/2016 S3B 04/29/2019
Tyto alba Barn Owl G5 04/10/2016 S3B 04/23/2019
Athene cunicularia Burrowing Owl G4 04/06/2016 S3B 04/19/2020
Asio otus Long-eared Owl G5 04/06/2016 S3B 06/27/2017
Aegolius acadicus Northern Saw-whet Owl G5 04/06/2016 S2B 06/27/2017
Psiloscops flammeolus Flammulated Owl G4 04/09/2016 S1B 06/27/2017
Phalaenoptilus nuttallii Common Poorwill G5 04/09/2016 S1B 06/27/2017
Antrostomus carolinensis Chuck-will's-widow G5 02/26/2014 S1B 06/27/2017
Antrostomus vociferus Eastern Whip-poor-will G5 04/06/2016 S1B 06/27/2017
Archilochus colubris Ruby-throated Hummingbird G5 04/06/2016 S2B 06/27/2017
Melanerpes lewis Lewis's Woodpecker G4 04/09/2016 S2B 08/16/2019
Picoides tridactylus American Three-toed Woodpecker G5 04/09/2016 S2B 08/22/2018
Picoides arcticus Black-backed Woodpecker G5 12/18/2017 S2B 06/05/2020
Dryocopus pileatus Pileated Woodpecker G5 04/07/2016 S1B 06/28/2017
Tyrannus vociferans Cassin's Kingbird G5 12/02/1996 S1B 06/27/2017
Nucifraga columbiana Clark's Nutcracker G5 04/09/2016 S2B 06/27/2017
Sitta pygmaea Pygmy Nuthatch G5 04/09/2016 S1B 06/27/2017
Certhia americana Brown Creeper G5 04/07/2016 S2B 08/21/2017
Cinclus mexicanus American Dipper ST G5 04/07/2016 S2B 04/16/2020
Polioptila caerulea Blue-gray Gnatcatcher G5 04/09/2016 S2B 08/21/2017
Catharus fuscescens Veery G5 04/07/2016 S1B 08/21/2017
Hylocichla mustelina Wood Thrush G4 04/08/2016 S1B 08/21/2017
Mimus polyglottos Northern Mockingbird G5 04/09/2016 S1B 08/21/2017
Oreoscoptes montanus Sage Thrasher G5 04/09/2016 S1B 08/21/2017
Anthus spragueii Sprague's Pipit G3,G4 12/18/2017 S2B 04/22/1992
Vireo flavifrons Yellow-throated Vireo G5 04/10/2016 S2B 08/21/2017
Mniotilta varia Black-and-white Warbler G5 04/09/2016 S1B 08/21/2017
Setophago cerulea Cerulean Warbler G4 12/03/1996 S1B 08/21/2017
Oreothypis virginiae Virginia's Warbler G5 12/03/1996 S2B 08/21/2017
Piranga olivacea Scarlet Tanager G5 04/09/2016 S2B 02/01/2018
Spizella breweri Brewer's Sparrow G5 04/09/2016 S2B 02/01/2018
Ammodramus bairdii Baird's Sparrow G4 04/06/2016 S2B 02/01/2018
Ammodramus henslowii Henslow's Sparrow G4 04/06/2016 S1B 02/01/2018
Ammodramus leconteii LeConte's Sparrow G5 04/06/2016 S2B 02/01/2018
Ammodramus nelsoni Nelson's Sparrow G5 04/06/2016 S1B 02/01/2018
Rhynchophanes mccownii McCown's Longspur G4 04/09/2016 SHB 02/01/2018
Sturnella magna Eastern Meadowlark G5 04/10/2016 S1B 08/21/2017
Heomorhous cassinii Cassin's Finch G5 04/08/2016 S1B 08/21/2017

FISH

Ichthyomyzon unicuspis Silver Lamprey G5 02/20/2012 SA 04/22/1992
Acipenser fulvescens Lake Sturgeon G3, G4 02/06/2008 S2 10/12/2016
Scaphirhynchus albus Pallid Sturgeon LE SE G2 11/21/2018 S1 04/22/1992
Scaphirhynchus platorynchus Shovelnose sturgeon LT G4 01/31/2003 S4 05/01/1991
Lepisosteus osseus Longnose Gar G5 02/09/2016 S3 04/22/1992
Anguilla rostrata American Eel G4 10/30/2011 SA 10/14/2005
Alosa chrysochloris Skipjack Herring G5 10/13/2011 S3 04/22/1992
Hiodon tergisus Mooneye G5 08/18/2015 SU 09/08/1997
Umbra limi Central Mudminnow G5 08/17/2015 S1 01/03/2007
Couesius plumbeus Lake Chub G5 08/17/2015 SH 02/11/1997
Nocomis biguttatus Hornyhead Chub G5 08/18/2015 S3 04/22/1992
Notropis blennius River Shiner G5 08/18/2015 S2 04/17/1996
Notropis heterolepis Blacknose Shiner SE G5 08/18/2015 S1 11/22/1995
Notropis percobromus Carmine Shiner G5 02/10/2016 S2 04/22/1992
Notropis shumardi Silverband Shiner G5 09/17/1996 S3 02/20/2015
Notropis topeka Topeka Shiner LE G3 07/31/2012 S3 02/19/2003
Phenacobius mirabilis Suckermouth Minnow G5 09/17/1996 S1 10/17/2016
Chrosomus eos Northern Redbelly Dace ST G5 08/17/2015 S2 04/22/1992
Chrosomus neogaeus Finescale Dace SE G5 05/10/2016 S1 04/17/1996
Chrosomus erythrogaster Southern Redbelly Dace G5 11/03/2011 S1 12/19/2003
Macrhybopsis gelida Sturgeon Chub ST G2 04/30/2012 S2 04/17/1996
Macrhybopsis meeki Sicklefin Chub SE G3 04/30/2012 S1 08/27/1997
Macrhybopsis storeriana Silver Chub G5 08/18/2015 S2 04/22/1992
Margariscus nachtriebi Northern Pearl Dace ST G5 12/21/2017 S2 04/17/1996
Carpiodes cyprinus Quillback G5 08/17/2015 S3 04/22/1992
Catostomus catostomus Longnose Sucker ST G5 08/17/2015 S1 04/17/1996
Catostomus platyrhynchus Mountain Sucker G5 02/09/2016 S3 01/02/2001
Cycleptus elongatus Blue Sucker G3G4 11/15/2011 S3 04/22/1992
Hypentelium nigricans Northern Hog Sucker G5 02/09/2016 SA 10/17/2016
Ictiobus niger Black Buffalo G5 02/21/2012 SU 10/21/2016
Moxostoma erythrurum Golden Redhorse G5 08/18/2015 S2 09/27/2016
Percopsis omiscomaycus Trout-Perch G5 08/17/2015 S2 04/22/1992
Fundulus diaphanus Banded Killifish SE G5 08/18/2015 S1 04/22/1992
Fundulus sciadicus Plains Topminnow G4 02/02/2012 S3 04/17/1996
Percina caprodes Logperch G5 08/17/2015 S3 04/17/1996
Percina maculata Blackside Darter G5 08/17/2015 S2 04/22/1992
Percina phoxocephala Slenderhead Darter G5 09/24/1996 S2 10/09/2016

MAMMALS

Sorex nanus Dwarf Shrew G4 11/01/1996 S1 02/06/1985
Sorex palustris American Water Shrew G5 04/05/2016 SH 01/24/2017
Sorex arcticus Arctic Shrew G5 04/05/2016 S1 02/06/1985
Sorex merriami Merriam's Shrew G5 04/05/2016 S1 06/27/2017
Sorex hoyi American Pygmy Shrew G5 04/05/2016 S2 04/17/1996
Cryptotis parva Least Shrew G5 04/04/2016 S2 06/27/2017
Myotis evotis Long-Eared Myotis G5 04/04/2016 S1 02/06/1985
Myotis thysanodes pahasapensis Fringe-Tailed Myotis G4T3 02/02/2018 S2 04/22/1992
Myotis septentrionalis Northern Long-earned Bat LT G1G2 04/04/2016 S3 04/22/1992
Lasionycteris noctivagans Silver-Haired Bat G3G4 04/04/2016 S4 04/22/1992
Corynorhinus townsendii Townsend's Big-Eared Bat G4 04/04/2016 S2S3 04/22/1992
Nycticeius humeralis Evening Bat G5 03/12/2015 S1 06/21/2002
Tamias striatus Eastern Chipmunk G5 04/05/2016 S3 02/06/1985
Xerospermophilus spilosoma Spotted Ground Squirrel G5 11/06/1996 SH 06/28/2017
Sciurus carolinensis Eastern Gray Squirrel G5 04/05/2016 SU 06/28/2017
Glaucomys sabrinus Northern Flying Squirrel G5 04/04/2016 S3 06/27/2017
Lemmiscus curtatus Sagebrush Vole G5 04/04/2016 S1 04/17/1996
Synaptomys cooperi Southern Bog Lemming G5 04/05/2016 S1 04/17/1996
Vulpes velox Swift Fox ST G3 04/05/2016 S3 07/09/2020
Mustela nigripes Black-Footed Ferret LE SE G1 04/04/2016 S1 04/17/1996
Spilogale putorius interrupta Plains Spotted Skunk G4T4 11/18/1996 S3 04/17/1996
Lontra canadensis Northern American River Otter G5 04/04/2016 S2 04/22/1992
Zapus hudsonius campestris Meadow Jumping Mouse G5T3 05/25/2011 S3 04/22/1992

REPTILES

Emydoidea blandingii Blanding's Turtle G4 02/02/2016 S1 04/17/1996
Graptemys pseudogeographica False Map Turtle ST G5 05/02/2005 S3 04/22/1992
Terrapene ornata Ornate Box Turtle G5 05/04/2005 S2 04/17/1996
Apalone mutica Smooth Softshell G5 10/23/1996 S2 04/17/1996
Apalone spinifera Spiny Softshell G5 02/02/2016 S2 04/22/1992
Holbrookia maculata Lesser Earless Lizard G5 07/18/2005 S2 04/22/1992
Phrynosoma hernandesi Short-Horned Lizard G5 02/02/2016 S2 04/17/1996
Sceloporus graciosus Sagebrush Lizard G5 07/18/2005 S2 04/22/1992
Sceloporus undulatus Northern Prairie Lizard G5 08/22/2005 S2 04/17/1996
Plestiodon multivirgatus Many-Lined Skink G5 08/26/2005 S1 04/17/1996
Aspidoscelis sexlineatus Six-Lined Racerunner G5 08/30/2005 S2 04/17/1996
Diadophis punctatus Ringneck Snake G5 02/02/2016 S2 04/17/1996
Elaphe vulpina Western Foxsnake G5 10/31/2012 S2 04/17/1996
Heterodon platirhinos Eastern Hog-nosed Snake ST G5 02/02/2016 S2 06/08/2020
Nerodia sipedon Northern Watersnake G5 02/02/2016 S1 04/17/1996
Storeria dekayi Dekay's Brownsnake G5 02/02/2016 S1 04/17/1996
Storeria occipitomaculata Red-bellied Snake G5 02/02/2016 S3 04/17/1996
Storeria occipitomaculata pahasapae Black Hills Red-bellied Snake G5T4Q 09/26/2005 S3 06/27/2017
Tropidoclonion lineatum Lined Snake SE G5 09/07/2006 S2 04/19/2020
Opheodrys vernalis Smooth Greensnake G5 02/02/2016 S4 04/22/1992

INSECTS

Entomobrya troglodytes A Cave Obligate Springtail G2,G3 08/21/2002 SX 06/28/2017
Cicindela lepida Ghost Tiger Beetle G3,G4 10/11/2011 S1 06/27/2017
Cicindela nevadica makosika Indian Creek Tiger Beetle G5,T1 12/22/2004 S1 06/27/2017
Amblycheila cylindriformis Great Plains Giant Tiger Beetle G4,G5 06/03/2008 S1 06/27/2017
Nicrophorus americanus American Burying Beetle LE G2G3 05/14/2009 S1 10/19/1995
Chlorochroa belfragii Belfragi's Chlorochroan Bug GNR SX 06/28/2017
Oarisma powesheik Powesheik Skipperling LE G1 02/07/2013 S2 04/16/1996
Hesperia ottoe Ottoe Skipper G3G4 05/19/2015 S2 03/04/1993
Hesperia dacotae Dakota Skipper LT G2 03/22/2011 S2 04/16/1996
Atrytone arogos iowa Iowa Skipper G3,T3 02/28/2005 S2 04/16/1995
Poanes massasoit Mulberry Wing G4 08/02/2016 SU 06/28/2017
Poanes viator Broad-Winged Skipper G5 06/14/2016 SU 06/28/2017
Speyeria idalia Regal Fritillary G3 01/27/2008 S3 04/16/1996
Speyeria atlantis pahasapa Atlantis Fritillary G5T3 01/07/1999 S3 07/01/1999
Phyciodes batesii Tawny Crescent G5 02/10/2017 S2 04/16/1996

MOLLUSCS-BIVALVES

Alasmidonta marginata Elktoe G4 01/23/2009 S1 04/07/2000
Amblema plicata Threeridge G5 01/08/2014 S2 04/22/1992
Anodonta suborbiculata Flat Floater G5 01/09/2014 S2 04/24/2000
Arcidens confragosus Rock Pocketbook G4 04/28/2009 S1 04/24/2000
Cyclonaias tuberculata Purple Wartyback G5 02/10/2016 SH 04/10/2000
Elliptio dilatata Spike G5 05/10/2016 S1 04/07/2000
Fusconaia flava Wabash Pigtoe G5 04/29/2009 S1 04/19/2000
Lampsilis higginsii Higgins Eye LE G1G2 06/25/2010 S1 11/10/2004
Lampsilis teres Yellow Sandshell G5 12/23/2011 S1 04/22/1992
Lampsilis cardium Plain Pocketbook G5 08/17/2006 S1 04/10/2000
Lasmigona compressa Creek Heelsplitter G5 02/08/2016 S1 04/10/2000
Leptodea leptodon Scaleshell LE G1G2 05/05/2009 S1 04/22/1992
Ligumia recta Black Sandshell G4G5 12/19/2011 S1 04/17/1996
Ligumia subrostrata Pondmussel G5 05/05/2009 S1 04/19/2000
Obliquaria reflexa Threehorn Wartyback G5 04/12/2007 S1 04/24/2000
Obovaria olivaria Hickorynut G4 05/07/2009 S1 12/04/2000
Pleurobema sintoxia Round Pigtoe G4G5 05/12/2009 S1 04/19/2000
Potamilus alatus Pink Heelsplitter G5 05/14/2009 S3 04/19/2000
Quadrula fragosa Winged Mapleleaf LE G1 11/30/2018 SX 10/30/2000
Quadrula pustulosa Pimpleback G5 08/23/2006 S1 04/19/2000
Quadrula quadrula Mapleleaf G5 05/19/2009 S2 04/19/2000
Strophitus undulatus Creeper G5 08/01/2014 S3 04/19/2000
Toxolasma parvus Lilliput G5 05/21/2009 S3 04/19/2000
Quadrula verrucosa Pistolgrip G4G5 05/19/2009 S1 04/24/2000
Truncilla donaciformis Fawnsfoot G5 12/23/2011 S2 04/19/2000
Truncilla truncata Deertoe G5 05/21/2009 S2 04/19/2000
Uniomerus tetralasmus Pondhorn G5 05/21/2009 S1 04/24/2000
Pyganodon grandis corpulenta Stout Floater G5T5Q 10/17/2006 SU 04/22/1992
Utterbackia imbecillis Paper Pondshell G5 12/19/2011 S1 04/10/2000

MOLLUSCS-GASTROPODS

Vertigo arthuri Dakota Vertigo G5 04/07/2010 S2 04/17/1996
Discus shimekii Striate Disc G5 08/02/2017 S2 04/22/1992
Catinella gelida Frigid Ambersnail G1Q 03/20/2003 S1 03/17/2017
Oreohelix strigosa cooperi Cooper's Rocky Mountainsnail G2G3Q 05/13/2008 S3 06/27/2017

Key to codes used in Natural Heritage Database species list:

FEDERAL STATUS

LE = Listed endangered
LT = Listed threatened
LELT = Listed endangered in part of range, threatened in part of range 
C = Candidate for federal listing, information indicates that listing is justified.
PE = Proposed endangered
PT = Proposed threatened

STATE STATUS

SE = State Endangered
ST = State Threatened

An endangered species is a species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. (applied rangewide for federal status and statewide for state status)

A threatened species is a species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future.

Global/State Rank Definition (applied rangewide for global rank and statewide for state rank)

G1 S1 Critically imperiled because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extinction.

G2 S2 Imperiled because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range.

G3 S3 Either very rare and local throughout its range, or found locally (even abundantly at some of its locations)in a restricted range,or vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors; in the range of 21 of 100 occurrences.

G4 S4 Apparently secure, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery. Cause for long term concern.

G5 S5 Demonstrably secure, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

GU SU Possibly in peril, but status uncertain, more information needed.

GH SH Historically known, may be rediscovered.

GX SX Believed extinct, historical records only.

G? S? Not yet ranked

_? _? Inexact rank

_T Rank of subspecies or variety

_Q Taxonomic status is questionable, rank may change with taxonomy

SZ No definable occurrences for conservation purposes, usually assigned to migrants

SP Potential exists for occurrence in the state, but no occurrences

SR Element reported for the state but no persuasive documentation

SA Accidental or casual

Bird species may have two state ranks, one for breeding (S#B) and one for nonbreeding seasons (S#N). Example: Ferruginous Hawk (S3B,SZN) indicates an S3 rank in breeding season and SZ in nonbreeding season.