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american dipper water connections

Possible Dipper Dispersal Routes Prior to Stream Capture Events

The Little Missouri River once had its origins in the Big Horn Mountains. A stream capture event (probably in the early Pleistocene) by the Powder River removed that connection. Another stream capture event in the late Pleistocene resulted from the Belle Fourche River capturing the headwaters of the Little Missouri River. This map shows the current drainage pattern and the location of the early Pleistocene stream capture event by the Powder River and the later stream capture event where the Belle Fourche River captured the headwaters of the Little Missouri River.. The Belle Fourche River and the Cheyenne River encircle the entire Black Hills. All surface water from the Black Hills flows to the east to the Missouri River. There are no longer any water connections to the western mountains.

Rubey, W.W. 1927. Stream Piracy in Northeastern Wyoming. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 17(5): 120

W.W. Rubey (1898-1974). Rubey was a career geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey and Professor of Geology and Geophysics at UCLA. Other selected publications are listed below:

W.W. Rubey published his very influential contribution Geologic History of Sea Water: An Attempt to State the Problem (Rubey, 1951).

W.W. Rubey. 1929. Origin of the Siliceous Mowry Shale of the Black Hills. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 154, 153-170.

W.W. Rubey. 1930. Lithological Studies of Fine-Grained Upper Cretaceous Sedimentary Rocks of the Black Hills Region. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 165-A, 1-54.

W.W. Rubey. 1931. In: Reeside, J. B., Jr.; Weymouth, A. A. Mollusks from the Aspen Shale (Cretaceous) of Southwestern Wyoming. United States National Museum Proceedings 78 (17), 2-3.

W.W. Rubey. 1925. The Geology of Russell County, Kansas, with Special Reference to Oil and Gas Resources. Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin 10 (1), 1-86.

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