On April 2, 2015, the first case of avian influenza was confirmed in South Dakota in a commercial turkey flock in Beadle County. GFP is working with both the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the South Dakota Animal Industry Board. Currently, USDA surveillance efforts are underway to sample waterfowl in South Dakota.
- In December 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was confirmed in British Columbia, Canada. Since then it has spread throughout several states in the United States.
- Since then, three strains of HPAI (H5N1, H5N8, and H5N2) have spread and have been documented in North America.
- Also since December 2014, the federal government has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza in 13 states (including South Dakota) of the Pacific, Central and Mississippi flyways.
- Only H5N2 has been detected in South Dakota.
- Map of Confirmed HPAI as of April 17, 2015.
- There are many strains of avian influenza (AI) virus that can cause varying degrees of clinical illness in poultry.
- Highly Pathogenic
Extremely infectious and fatal form of the disease that, once established, can spread rapidly from flock to flock.
- Low Pathogenic
Typically causes only minor illness, and sometimes manifests no clinical signs. Some of these virus strains are capable of mutating under field conditions into the above mentioned highly pathogenic strains.
- Highly Pathogenic
- These viruses can infect chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, ducks, geese and guinea fowl, as well as a wide variety of other birds.
- Migratory waterfowl have proved to be a natural reservoir for the less infectious strains of the disease. As of April 1, 2015, no large scale mortality events involving HPAI in North American wild birds have been documented.
- IMPORTANT: The new H5N1 virus is not the same virus as the H5N1 virus found in Asia that has caused some human illness and no human cases have been detected.
Waterfowl | Pheasants | Falcons
- Wild waterfowl and other migratory birds are suspected carriers of HPAI; however, no large scale mortality events in wild birds have been documented.
- Transmission and mortality rates among wild pheasants are currently unknown.
- Wild upland game birds (including pheasants) are likely less susceptible to catastrophic HPAI outbreaks because they occur in relatively low densities across the landscape in comparison to captive flocks.
- Chickens, turkeys, other gallinaceous birds and raptors appear to be most susceptible to these strains of HPAI.
- GFP recommends that falconers avoid hunting avian species, particularly waterfowl during HPAI outbreaks. Falconers are also urged to avoid feeding wild birds to raptors used for falconry.
- Poultry affected by avian influenza can show signs of decreased food consumption, respiratory problems, decreased egg production, greenish diarrhea, excessive thirst and swollen wattles and combs.
- Wild birds may have symptoms including edema or swelling of the head, nasal discharge, decreased activity, ruffled feathers, diarrhea and tremors.
Things to Remember
- Do not handle or eat sick game.
- Prepare game in a well-ventilated area.
- Wear rubber or disposable latex gloves while handling and cleaning game.
- Wash hands thoroughly with soap or disinfectant, clean knives, equipment, and surfaces that come in contact with game.
- Do not eat, drink, or smoke while handling animals.
- All game should be thoroughly cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees F.
For more information
- World Health Organization
- National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- USDA-APHIS Veterinary Services
- USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Game, Fish & Parks
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Pierre, SD 57501
Department of Health
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Pierre, SD 57501