SM Link

nonmeandered waters FAQs

you ask. we answer.

general Questions

What is a meandered lake?
Meandered lakes are waters that at the time of the original survey of South Dakota, the U.S. government surveyor estimated to be larger than 40 acres and of a permanent nature. Land within the defined meander line, or surveyed boundary, became state trust property.

What is a nonmeandered body of water?
Water overlying private property that flooded after years of rainfall and that are not part of a meandered basin. Nonmeandered waters do not include rivers, streams, man-made lakes or meandered lakes.

What is the difference between a Section 8 nonmeandered water and a non-Section 8 nonmeandered water?
A Section 8 water is one of the 27 nonmeandered water bodies identified in Section 8 of House Bill 1001 as being open to recreational use by the public due to previous public use and established boat ramps on those waters. These waters are open to public use unless the GFP Commission authorizes a landowner to close part of the water body overlying their deeded land through a petition process. Listed below are the 27 nonmeandered bodies of water that were reopened for recreational use with the passing of HB 1001.

A non-Section 8 nonmeandered water is any other nonmeandered water that is not listed above.

What is the process for posting nonmeandered bodies of water?
The process is different for a Section 8 nonmeandered water than it is for a non-Section 8 nonmeandered water.

Are there standards for marking nonmeandered bodies of water? What is the timeline for this action?
Yes. These were finalized by the GFP Commission on November 3, 2017, and can be viewed here.

Is there a standard size and color of sign or buoys?
Yes. Signs will be red with white lettering and will be provided by GFP to landowners in order to provide a consistent and recognizable sign. Buoys must be red in color, with contrasting letters stating “CLOSED” painted or marked on them. They must be a minimum of 14.5 inches by 19.5 inches. Purchase of buoys will be the responsibility of the landowners and can be purchased through several vendors.

Landowners will be responsible for placement and maintenance of both signs and buoys.

More details can be found here.

What happens if a water body has been improperly marked?
Markers that are improperly placed either intentionally or accidentally should be reported to GFP so they can be rectified.

What is the petition process for the Section 8 lakes?
The Legislature gave the GFP Commission the authority to decide on requests to restrict nonmeandered lakes. The process provides landowners with lakebed property on one of the 27 Section 8 lakes the ability to formally make those requests by petitioning the GFP Commission.

Petitioning landowners must first complete and submit the petition form.

Upon submission of the form, the Commission will schedule and post a hearing date based on the availability of the landowner and the Commission. The hearing agenda will be publicly posted and the hearing will be open to the public.

Following the hearing, the Commission will adopt a resolution that grants the petition in part or full, or denies the petition stating its reasons for partial or complete denial. State law requires the Commission to consider privacy, safety and substantially affected financial interests of the landowner as well as history of use, water quality and quantity and the public’s interest in recreational use of the water.

Are there currently any signed agreements with landowners to open nonmeandered waters over their property?
Currently, GFP staff have discussed access agreement with a few landowners, but no agreements have been finalized at this time.

Where can I find information about which bodies of water have been marked? How are anglers going to keep up to date with lakes and parts of lakes that are open or closed?
This map indicates which water bodies have been closed.

As of November 8, 2017, seven water bodies have been closed (2 in Kingsbury, 2 in Clark, 2 in Day and 1 in Marshall Counties).

What happens during the 2018 legislative session? Will things change?
Legislators will need to enact changes to the Open Waters Compromise (SDCL 41-23-8) during the 2018 legislative session. This action could be as simple as changing the sunset date which is currently June 30, 2018, or it could be much more detailed and could include repeal of the statute.

Sportsman Questions

Where can I go fishing? What is legal right now?
All waters not marked as closed are open to recreational use, although the bed of nonmeandered lakes cannot be used without permission of the landowner. Hunting on ice of nonmeandered lakes is also prohibited, unless permission is granted by the owner of the lakebed.

Are there lakes that are still closed?
The injunctions put in place on specific water bodies remain in effect until such time as they are removed by additional court action; which currently includes Duerre v. Hepler and Parks v. Cooper. More specifically, these Day County water bodies include: Duerre Slough, Jesse Slough, Schiley Lake, Long Lake and Parks Slough.

Is Reetz Lake open or closed?
Reetz Lake is currently closed.

Do I now have to ask permission to go fishing on nonmeandered waters?
Yes, if the waters are marked as closed.

Is there a map showing which lakes or bodies of water overlying private property have been marked as closed?
Yes, there is a map available showing current nonmeandered water closures. Some of the waters may be fully or partially closed. Individuals are asked to please pay attention to posted signs.

How do I know if I am trespassing?
It is up to each individual to know where they are and if they are authorized to be there.

How will access be monitored on areas that have been closed off?
It is the responsibility of the landowner or his/her designee to monitor the areas that have been closed. Law enforcement will investigate claims of trespassing on properly marked nonmeandered waters.

Explain public trust resource. How can it be said that water is held in the public trust when it is now closed off?
Public trust is a term used to describe things that cannot be owned as personal possessions. The Supreme Court of SD upheld that water is a public trust resource, but also stated that it was the legislature’s responsibility to determine what that water could be used for.

What if a landowner is charging for access?
Per statute, landowners cannot charge a fee for fishing nonmeandered waters that are marked as closed. Violations related to charging for fishing access to closed waters will be investigated by law enforcement. Fees may only be charged for fishing waters that are not marked as closed; such as a private boat ramp on an open water body, a boat ramp located within the boundaries of a state park or recreation area and even some lakeside use areas along the Missouri River -

If I am standing on/in the road right-of-way and cast out to the water of an unmarked nonmeandered lake and the water is no longer in the road right-of-way, am I trespassing?
Casting into unmarked (open) water from a legal point of access is legal. Any contact between recreational equipment and private property underlying any unmarked (open) nonmeandered lake incidental to a lawful recreational use is not a criminal trespass.

Can I stand on the road right-a-way and cast into nonmeandered waters that are legally marked as closed?
The law now specifically prohibits "recreational use" of marked (closed) waters. Casting a lure into marked (closed) waters is a recreational use of those waters and is a violation of Section 5 of HB 1001.

Is a flooded road right-of-way adjacent to legally posted nonmeandered waters open to spearing/archery fishing?  
Nonmeandered water over a road right-of-way is open to recreational use and cannot be closed by marking. It is the responsibility of the person recreating to ensure they are in fact over the road right-of-way.

What are the section line regulations?
Waters over section lines that have not been vacated are open to recreational use.

How does this law impact hunting?
Hunting on the ice above private land on nonmeandered waters is prohibited without permission from the owner of the flooded land. Wading on nonmeandered waters is also prohibited without permission. Waterfowl hunting from a boat is allowed on any unmarked area as long as the hunters remain in the boat.

How does this law impact ice fishing?
Ice anglers need permission to fish on waters marked as closed to recreational use.

Landowner Questions

How can I post water over my private property on nonmeandered waters?
Landowners who want to close nonmeandered waters must mark closed areas with signs provided by GFP and/or buoys that meet the standards provide by administrative rule. Marking requirements can be found here. The landowner must also notify GFP of the closure so staff can ensure the marked area is properly indicated on the closure map.

Have there been further discussions regarding an access stamp to help offset tax burdens of the landowners and counties?
This concept was discussed by certain members of the nonmeandered waters legislative summer study committee and will likely be discussed further during the 2018 legislative session.

Who pays for the markers to close nonmeandered waters over my land?
GFP will provide the signs utilized to mark closures. The landowner will purchase any buoys that may be necessary to mark open water areas. The landowner is responsible for installing and maintaining the signs and buoys.

Have there been further discussions on the creation of a safety zone or quiet zone near homes or farms along nonmeandered waters?
This idea was discussed by certain members of the nonmeandered waters legislative summer study committee and will likely be discussed further during the 2018 legislative session.

Have there been further discussions on a permanent easement payment with the right to retain grazing/farming if land ever dries up?
These discussions have been limited.

contact information

Recreation and Respect :: Ask before you access

Many areas of South Dakota are true hunting and fishing treasures, but gaining access to them will take an investment of time and an honest, respectful approach. Ask before you access.