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Rare Plants

Tracked By The South Dakota Natural Heritage Program

November 2009

Click here for the key to status and rank codes.

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Comment Federal Status State Status
Adiantum capillus-veneris Southern Maidenhair-fern G5 S1 Single occurrence on Cascade Creek of S B Hills.
Adiantum pedatum Northern Maidenhair-fern G5 SH Last collected in 1941 from Spearfish Mtn.
Adoxa moschatellina Musk-root G5 S3 Higher elevations of the B Hills.
Agastache scrophulariifolia Purple Giant Hyssop G4 SU Few collections from e SD.
Agoseris aurantiaca Orange Mountain-dandelion G5 SU Reported from nw Black Hills.
Agrimonia pubescens Downy Agrimony G5 SU Single 1969 collection from Newton Hills.
Allium drummondii Drummond's Wild Onion G5 SU Reported from Shannon Co.
Anemone quinquefolia Wood Anemone G5 S2 Known from 4 forests in ne SD.
Arabis canadensis Sicklepod G5 S3 Rich forests of e SD.
Aralia racemosa American Spikenard G4G5 S3 Rich forests of e SD.
Aristida longespica Slimspike Threeawn G5 SU Single 1979 collection from Clay Co.
Asarum canadense Wild-ginger G5 S2 Known from 2 forests in ne SD.
Asclepias lanuginosa Wooly Milkweed G4? S2 Few recent collections from e SD prairies.
Asclepias sullivantii Prairie Milkweed G5 SU Few collections from 1950's & 60s in se SD.
Asplenium trichomanes Maidenhair Spleenwort G5 S3 Moist granite outcrops of cent B Hills.
Asplenium viride Green Spleenwort G4 S2 Limestone outcrops & soil of n B Hills.
Aster pauciflorus Marsh Alkali Aster G4 SH Last collected in 1959 in nw SD.
Aster pubentior Flattop Aster G5 S2 Fens & seepage areas of e SD.
Astragalus americanus Rattlepod G5 S3 Forested riparian zones of B Hills.
Astragalus barrii Barr's Milkvetch G3 S3 Regional endemic including sw SD.
Astragalus hyalinus Summer Orophaca G4 SU Recently documented in sw SD.
Astragalus miser A Milk-vetch G5 SH Single collection from B Hills in 1895.
Botrychium campestre Prairie Moonwort G3G4 S2S3 Native grasslands of the B Hills & e SD.
Botrychium gallicomontanum Frenchman's Bluff Moonwort G1 S1 Limestone grasslands of the B Hills.
Botrychium lineare Slender Moonwort GNR S1 Native grasslands of the s B Hills.
Botrychium lunaria Moonwort Grape-fern G5 S1S2 Black Hills meadows & grasslands.
Botrychium matricariifolium Matricary Grape-fern G5 S1 Rarely collected in e SD & B Hills.
Botrychium multifidum Leathery Grape-fern G5 S1 Harney Peak area of the B Hills.
Botrychium pallidum Pale Moonwort G3 S2S3 Black Hills meadows & grasslands.
Botrychium simplex Least Grape-fern G5 S3 B Hills meadows & e SD sand prairie.
Bupleurum americanum American Thorowax G5 S1 2006 discovery in Cathedral Spires of B Hills.
Cacalia plantaginea Indian Plantain G4G5 SNA Reported but unverified in ne SD.
Calypso bulbosa Fairy Slipper Orchid G5 S3 Spruce forests of higher B Hills.
Cardamine concatenata Toothwort G5 S3 Few occurrences in forests of e SD.
Carex aggregata Clustered Sedge G5 SH Last collected near Pickerel Lk in 1966.
Carex alopecoidea Tawny Sedge G5 S2S3 Wetland margins of e SD & B Hills.
Carex athrostachya Jointed-spike Sedge G5 S1 Single recent collection from cent B Hills.
Carex bella Elegant Sedge G5 S1 Few occurrences in Harney Peak area.
Carex brunnescens Brownish Sedge G5 SU Last collected in 1975 from Harney Pk area.
Carex canescens Gray Sedge G5 S2 Spruce wetlands of higher B Hills
Carex capillaris Hair Sedge G5 S3 Moist B Hills habitats & historically in ne SD.
Carex concinna Low Northern Sedge G4G5 S2S3 Reported but rarely collected in the B Hills.
Carex intumescens Swollen Sedge G5 S2 Few occurrences in Harney Peak area.
Carex lacustris Lake Sedge G5 S4? Fens & fresh water wetlands of s & ne SD.
Carex leptalea Delicate Sedge G5 S3 Forested wetlands of higher B Hills
Carex occidentalis Western Sedge G4 S2 Few occurrences in Harney Peak area.
Carex pedunculata Long-stalked Sedge G5 S4? Deciduous forests of B Hills and ne SD.
Carex rupestris Curly Sedge G5 S1 Last collected in Harney Peak area, 1983.
Carex sparganioides Bur Sedge G5 SH Last collected in 1928 from forests in se SD.
Carex tribuloides Blunt-broom Sedge G5 S1 Single 1992 collection from B Hills springhead wetland.
Carex vesicaria Inflated Sedge G5 SH Several historical collections from nw, sw, ne SD.
Carex viridula Little Green Sedge G5 S1 Fen habitats of ne SD & historically in B Hills.
Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue Cohosh G4G5 S3 Rich forests of e SD.
Ceanothus fendleri Fendler's Whitethorn G5 S2 Locallized in sw Black Hills.
Chaenactis douglasii Douglas' Dusty Maiden G5 SU Western species found in nw SD.
Chenopodium subglabrum Smooth Goosefoot G3G4 S2 Rarely collected from sand prairies of w SD.
Chrysopsis stenophylla Slimleaf Goldaster G4 SU Reported from Yankton Co, no specimens.
Chrysothamnus parryi Parry's Rabbit-bush G5 SU Reported for sw SD, no specimens.
Cinna arundinacea Stout Woodreed G5 SH Last reported in 1920 from forests of se SD.
Clematis hirsutissima Sugar Bowls G4 S2 Uncommon in grasslands of sw SD.
Corallorhiza odontorhiza Autumn Coral-root G5 SU Collected once in 1971 from n B Hills.
Corallorhiza trifida Pale Coral-root G5 S2 Cool, moist forests at higher elevations of the B Hills.
Coreopsis palmata Finger Coreopsis G5 S3 Uncommon in prairies of se SD.
Cornus amomum Pale Dogwood G5 SU Few collections from se SD floodplain forests.
Cryptantha cana Silver-mounded Candleflower G5 S2 Regional endemic extending into sw SD.
Cryptantha jamesii James'Candleflower G5T5? SH Last collected in 1947 in sw SD.
Cryptogramma acrostichoides American Rock-brake G5 S1 Single collection in 1994 from n Hills rock outcrops.
Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale Northern Comfrey G5T4T5 S3 Various forested habitats of the B Hills.
Cypripedium candidum Small White Lady's-slipper G4 S1 Few occurrences in prairies of ne SD.
Cypripedium parviflorum Yellow Lady's-slipper G5 S3? Forests of B Hills and ne SD.
Cystopteris bulbifera Bulbil Bladder Fern G5 S1 Single known occurrence in ne SD.
Danthonia californica California Oatgrass G5 SU Single 1982 collection from n B Hills not relocated.
Deschampsia cespitosa Tufted Hairgrass G5 S3 Black Hills wet meadows at higher elevations.
Diarrhena americana American Beakgrain G4? SH Single collection along Big Sioux River in 1958.
Disporum hookeri Drops of gold G5 S2S3 Aspen/birch and mixed forests of n B Hills.
Dryopteris carthusiana Spinulose Shield Fern G5 S1 Single 1993 collection from central B Hills.
Echinocereus viridiflorus Hedgehog Cactus G5 S3 Native grasslands of s Black Hills.
Elaeagnus commutata Silverberry G5 SU Barely enters n SD, formerly of B Hills.
Eleocharis rostellata Beaked Spikerush G5 S1 Single known occurrence on Cascade Creek.
Eleocharis tenuis Slender Spikerush G5 S1 Single known occurrence on Minnechaduza Ck.
Elymus diversiglumis Interrupted Wildrye G3G4Q SH Last collected in 1969 from woodlands of B Hills.
Epipactis gigantea Stream Orchid G3G4 S1 Single known occurrence on Cascade Creek.
Equisetum scirpoides Dwarf Scouring Rush G5 S2 Black Hills riparian forests at higher elevations.
Equisetum variegatum Variegated Scouring Rush G5 S1 Few occurrences in Black Hills.
Eragrostis trichodes Sand Lovegrass G5 S4? Uncommon in sandhills of s-cent SD.
Erigeron acris Bitter Fleabane G5 SH Three historical collections from wet meadows in s B Hills.
Erigeron ochroleucus Buff Fleabane G5 S4 Few collections from B Hills hogback ridge.
Eriogonum visheri Dakota Buckwheat G3 S3 Badland outcrops of w SD, sw ND & se MT.
Eriophorum gracile Slender Cottongrass G5 S1 Rare in fens of SD.
Eriophorum polystachion Tall Cottongrass G5 S3 Fens of e SD and the Black Hills.
Erythronium albidum White Fawn Lily G5 S1 Single occurrence in se SD forest.
Euphorbia fendleri Fendler's Spurge G5 SU Few collections from Mt Mahogany stands of s B Hills.
Eustoma grandiflorum Tulip Gentain G5 S1 Single recent occurrence in s B Hills.
Fimbristylis autumnalis Slender Fimbry G5 SH Reported but unverified in se SD.
Gentiana affinis Northern Gentian G5 S2 Montane meadows of B Hills and ne SD.
Gentiana puberulenta Downy Gentian G4G5 S4? Prairies of e SD & disjunct in B Hills.
Gentianopsis procera Small Fringed Gentian G5 S2 Fens of e SD.
Geranium maculatum Wild Cranesbill G5 S2 Rich forests of e SD.
Gymnocladus dioicus Kentucky Coffee-tree G5 S2 Few native stands in forests of se SD.
Haplopappus multicaulis Branched Goldenweed G4 SU Regional endemic of seleniferous soils.
Ipomopsis longiflora White-flowered Gilia G5 S2 Barely entering sandhills of s SD.
Ipomopsis spicata Spike Gila G5 S4? Uncommon in w SD.
Isoetes melanopoda Black-footed Quillwort G5 SH Single 1924 specimen from Mellette Co. wetland.
Isopyrum biternatum False Rue Anemone G5 SH Single historical report from cent SD.
Juglans nigra Black Walnut G5 S4? Few native stands in forests of se SD.
Juncus alpinus Alpine Rush G5 S3 Permanent wet meadow habitat with fresh water.
Juncus articulatus Jointed Rush G5 S1 B Hills wet meadows, historically from ne SD.
Juncus canadensis Canada Rush G5 S1 Single known occurrence in s-cent SD.
Juncus marginatus Margined Rush G5 S2 Sandy wet meadows of s-cent SD & B Hills(?)
Lactuca floridana Woodland Wild Blue Lettuce G5 S2 Rare in forests of se SD.
Lechea intermedia Pinweed G5 SU Scattered collections in w SD.
Ledum groenlandicum Labrador Tea G5 SX Single 1931 collection from n Black Hills.
Lespedeza capitata Bush Clover G5 S2 Uncommon in prairies of se SD.
Lesquerella arenosa var. argillosa Sidesaddle Bladderpod G5T3 S3 Regional endemic of badlands in sw SD.
Lesquerella montana Mountain Bladderpod G5 SU Reported for s Black Hills.
Leucophysalis grandiflora White Groundcherry G4? SX Several historical collections from Spearfish Canyon.
Lewisia pygmaea Alpine Bitterroot G5 S1S2 Montane meadows of the Blackj Hills.
Lilium canadense ssp. michiganense Turk's Cap Lily G5 S1 Rare in tallgrass prairies of e SD.
Liparis loeselii Loesel's Twayblade G5 S1 Rare in fens of e SD.
Listera convallarioides Broad-lipped Twayblade G5 S1 Few occurrences in springhead wetlands of n B Hills.
Lithophragma glabrum Bulbus Woodland Star G4G5 SH Single 1966 collection from n B Hills.
Lithospermum caroliniense Hairy Puccoon G4G5 S4? Sandhills of s SD, historically from B Hills.
Lithospermum latifolium American Gromwell G4 S1 Single known occurrence in ne SD.
Lobelia kalmii Kalm's Lobelia G5 S1 Calcareous fens of ne SD.
Lomatium nuttallii Nuttall's Desert-parsley G3 SH Single 1926 collection from s Black Hills.
Luzula acuminata Hairy Woodrush G5 S2S3 Restricted to boreal forest types of n B Hills.
Luzula parviflora Small-flowered Woodrush G5 S2S3 Few collections in the n B Hills.
Lycopodium annotinum Bristly Clubmoss G5 S1 Few occurrences in n Black Hills.
Lycopodium complanatum Ground Cedar G5 S1 Few occurrences in n Black Hills.
Lycopodium dendroideum Round-branched Ground Pine G5 S4? Restricted to n Black Hills.
Lysimachia quadriflora Prairie Loosestrife G5? S1 Apparently restircted to sandhills of n-cent SD.
Melica subulata Alaska Oniongrass G5 S4? Many occurrences in n B Hills.
Melica bulbosa Oniongrass G5 S1 Single 1991 collection from n Black Hills.
Menyanthes trifoliata Bog Buckbean G5 S1 Two recent sites known, two historical sites destroyed.
Mertensia ciliata Streamside Bluebells G5 S1 Few collecitons from riparian zones in w SD.
Microseris nutans Nodding Silver-puffs G5 SH Two historical collections from ne B Hills.
Mitella pentandra Five-point Bishop's Cap G5? S1 Few occurrences in n Black Hills.
Monarda pectinata Pony Beebalm G5 SH Single 1924 collection from Todd Co.
Muhlenbergia glomerata Bristly Muhly G5 S4? Fens and saturated, organic substrates statewide.
Myriophyllum heterophyllum Water Milfoil G5 S1 Two historical & 1recent collection from Brookings Co.
Najas marina Spiny Naiad G5 SU Reported from Grant County in ne SD.
Navarretia intertexta var. propinqua Great Basin Navarretia G5T5 SH Two historical collection from Harding Co.
Nymphaea odorata White Water-lily G5 SH Historically known from se SD.
Oenothera flava Yellow Evening Primrose G5 S1 Historically known but few recent finds in w SD.
Oenothera rhombipetala Fourpoint Evening Primrose G4G5 S4? Barely entering sandhills of s SD.
Orobanche uniflora One-flowered Broomrape G5 S2 Rarely collected from ne Black Hills.
Oxyria digyna Mountain Sorrel G5 S2 Localized in Harney Peak area of B Hills.
Panax quinquefolius American Ginseng G3G4 S1 Single known occurrence in se SD.
Parnassia glauca Waxy Bog-star G5 S2 Calcareous fens of ne SD.
Parnassia palustris Northern Bog-star G5 S1 Single occurrence in fen of n-cent SD.
Pedicularis procera Long-leaved Lousewort G4G5 S2 Localized near Deerfield in mixed forest & clearings.
Penstemon nitidus Shining Penstemon G5 S2 Few occurrences on buttes of nw SD.
Petasites sagittatus Sweet-coltsfoot G5 S2 Localized in streamside wetland habitats of n B Hills.
Petrophyton caespitosum Tufted Rockmat G5 S4? Limestone rock outcrops of n B Hills
Phacelia linearis Threadleaf Phacelia G5 SU Few reports from sandy soils near the B Hills.
Phleum alpinum Alpine Timothy G5 S2 Higher elevations of the cent & n B Hills.
Phlox divaricata Woodland Blue Phlox G5 SX Historically collected in forests of se SD.
Picradeniopsis woodhousei Bahia G4G5 SU Two 1967 collections from w SD.
Pinus contorta Lodgepole Pine G5 S1 Single stand near Nahant & scattered trees elsewhere in n B Hills.
Pinus flexilis Limber Pine G5 S1 Localized in Harney Peak area of B Hills.
Platanthera dilatata Northern White Orchid G5 S1 Rare in wetland habitats of the n B Hills.
Platanthera orbiculata Round-leaved Orchid G5 S3 Forested habitats of the n Black Hills.
Platanthera praeclara Western Prairie Fringed Orchid G2 SH Last collected in e SD in 1916. LT
Platanthera stricta Slender bog orchid G5 SU Single 1971 collection from n B Hills, identity uncertain.
Poa rupicola Timberline Bluegrass G5T3T5 S1 Single known occurrence on Harney Peak.
Poa sylvestris Sylvan Bluegrass G5 SH Single 1959 collection from ne SD.
Polanisia jamesii James' Clammyweed G5 S4? Sandy habitats of s-cent & sw SD.
Polygala sanguinea Blood Milkwort G5 SU Reported for SD but no specimens located.
Polypodium virginianum Rock Polypody G5 S1 Few occurrences on quartzite outcrops of se SD.
Polystichum lonchitis Northern Holly-fern G5 S2 Moist forested habitats of n Black Hills.
Polystichum munitum Western Sword Fern G5 SH Single collection from n B Hills in 1967.
Potamogeton amplifolius Large-leaf Pondweed G5 S1 Historically in calm, fresh water of e SD, only 2 recent reports.
Potamogeton vaginatus Sheathed Pondweed G5 SH Last observed in Blue Dog Lake in 1962.
Prenanthes alba White Rattlesnake Root G5 S2 Restricted to forests of ne SD.
Prenanthes aspera Rough Rattlesnake-root G4? S2 Uncommon in prairies of e SD.
Psoralea linearifolia Slimleaf Scurfpea G4? SU Two historical and one 1971 report in w SD grasslands.
Pyrola picta White-veined Wintergreen G4G5 S3S4 Higher elevation forests of the n B Hills.
Pyrola uniflora One-flower Wintergreen G5 S2 Mature spruce forests of the n B Hills.
Pyrus ioensis Iowa Crab-apple G4G5 SU Reported for woodlands of se SD, no vouchers yet found.
Rhamnus alnifolia Alder Buckthorn G5 SH Two historical collections from n B Hills.
Rhodiola integrifolia ssp. leedyi Leedy's Roseroot G5T1 S1 Single occurrence on granite in the central Black Hills. LT
Rhynchospora capillacea Slender Beakrush G4 S1 Fens of ne SD, historically from s-cent SD.
Salix candida Sage Willow G5 S1 Fens of ne SD, single disjunct occurrence in B Hills.
Salix humilis Prairie Willow G5 S1 Presently only known from sand prairie of n-cent SD.
Salix lucida Shining Willow G5 S1 Single recent collection from cent B Hills.
Salix serissima Autumn Willow G4 S1 Saturated, organic soils of n Black Hills.
Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot G5 S4? Forests of e SD & disjunct in B Hills.
Saxifraga cernua Nodding Saxifrage G4 S1 Moist sites at higher elevations of B Hills.
Saxifraga occidentalis Western Saxifrage G5 S2 Few collections from n Black Hills.
Scrophularia marilandica Maryland Figwort G5 SH Last collected from prairie in se SD in 1960.
Senecio spartioides var. spartioides Broom Groundsel G5T5 SH Last collected from prairie in sw SD in 1967.
Silphium integrifolium Entire-leaf Rosinweed G5 SU Recently rediscovered in se SD.
Silphium laciniatum Compass Plant G5 S3 Tallgrass prairies of se SD.
Smilax ecirrata Upright Carrion-flower G5? SH Last collected in 1965 in se SD forest.
Solidago riddellii Riddell's Goldenrod G5 S1 Single known occurrence in fen of e SD.
Solidago sparsiflora Three-nerved Goldenrod G5? SU Few scattered collections from w SD & BH's.
Sorbus scopulina Western Mountain Ash G5 S4? Localized in the n Black Hills.
Sparganium chlorocarpum Green-fruited Bur Reed G5 SU Taxonomic questions.
Spiraea alba Meadowsweet G5 S3 Prairies & wet meadows of e SD. Historically in BH's.
Spiranthes cernua Nodding Ladies' Tresses G5 S2 Few occurrences in prairies of ne SD.
Spiranthes magnicamporum Great Plains Ladies' Tresses G4 S2 Prairie swales & meadows in e & s-cent SD.
Spiranthes vernalis Twisted Ladies' Tresses G5 S2 Moist meadows in southeastern most SD.
Stachys tenuifolia Smooth Hedge-nettle G5 SU Single collection in 1989 from floodplain in se SD.
Stipa robusta Sleepy Grass G5 S3 Uncommon grass of the s Black Hills.
Taenidia integerrima Yellow Pimpernell G5 SH Last collected in 1883 from cent SD.
Thelesperma megapotamicum Hopi-tea G5 S3S4 Coarse soiled prairies of sw SD.
Thelypteris palustris Marsh Fern G5 S1 Three known occurrences in fen habitats
Townsendia exscapa Easter Daisy G5 S4? Uncommon in grasslands of western SD.
Townsendia grandiflora Largeflower Townsend-daisy G4? S4? Grasslands of sw SD.
Townsendia hookeri Hooker's Townsend-daisy G5 S3 Sparse grassland & barren substrates of sw SD.
Trifolium beckwithii Beckwith Clover G4G5 S1 Prairie swales & meadows in ne SD.
Trillium cernuum Nodding Trillium G5 S2 Rich forests of ne SD.
Trillium flexipes Declining Trillium G5 SU Reported for SD but no specimens located.
Trillium nivale Snow Trillium G4 S2 Rich forests of se SD.
Triplasis purpurea Purple Sandgrass G4G5 S2 Sand prairie & dunes of s SD.
Tripterocalyx micranthus Sand Puffs G5 S1 Sand prairie & blowouts of nw SD.
Ulmus thomasii Rock Elm G5 SH Last collected in 1960 from forest in se SD.
Uvularia grandiflora Large-flowered Bellwort G5 S3 Rich forests of e SD.
Uvularia sessilifolia Small-flowered Bellwort G5 SX Last collected in 1894 from se SD forest.
Vaccinium membranaceum Mountain Huckleberry G5 S2 Restricted to forests in Lead/Deadwood area.
Veronicastrum virginicum Culver's Root G4 S1 Mesic prairie of se SD.
Viburnum edule Squashberry G5 S3 Cool, moist forests of Spearfish Ck watershed.
Viola selkirkii Great-spurred Violet G5? S2S3 Moist forests at higher elevations of the B Hills.
Xylorhiza glabriuscula Woody Aster G4 S1S3 Seleniferous soils of sw SD.
Zizania aquatica Wild Rice G5 S2S3 Slow streams & lake bays of e SD.



LE = Listed endangered
LT = Listed threatened
LELT = Listed endangered in part of range, threatened in part of range
C = Candidate for federal listing, information indicates that listing is justified.
PE = Proposed endangered
PT = Proposed threatened


SE = State Endangered
ST = State Threatened

An endangered species is a species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. (applied rangewide for federal status and statewide for state status)

A threatened species is a species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future.


Global/State Rank Definition (applied rangewide for global rank and statewide for state rank)

G1 S1 Critically imperiled because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extinction.

G2 S2 Imperiled because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extinction throughout its range.

G3 S3 Either very rare and local throughout its range, or found locally (even abundantly at some of its locations)in a restricted range,or vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other factors; in the range of 21 of 100 occurrences.

G4 S4 Apparently secure, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery. Cause for long term concern.

G5 S5 Demonstrably secure, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.

GU SU Possibly in peril, but status uncertain, more information needed.

GH SH Historically known, may be rediscovered.

GX SX Believed extinct, historical records only.

G? S? Not yet ranked

_? _? Inexact rank

_T Rank of subspecies or variety

_Q Taxonomic status is questionable, rank may change with taxonomy

SZ No definable occurrences for conservation purposes, usually assigned to migrants

SP Potential exists for occurrence in the state, but no occurrences

SR Element reported for the state but no persuasive documentation

SA Accidental or casual

Bird species may have two state ranks, one for breeding (S#B) and one for nonbreeding seasons (S#N). Example: Ferruginous Hawk (S3B,SZN) indicates an S3 rank in breeding season and SZ in nonbreeding season.

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